五分之一美国家庭几代同堂

In this Friday, April 13, 2012 photo, Lennar Homes sales manager Joy Broddle, left, talks with Kelly, center, and Bill Noorish while standing in the living area of the main house of a model Next Gen home, in Las Vegas. The Noorishes, who moved to Las Vegas recently from Pensacola, Fla. and have a multigenerational home under construction, will be joined soon in by their 32-year-old son and his wife. Builders across the country are revamping home designs to meet the needs of a growing number of Americans who are now living with extended family. The number of so-called multi-generational households where adults are living with their elderly parents or grown children has jumped since the Great Recession forced Americans to rethink living on their own.  (AP Photo/Julie Jacobson)

In this Friday, April 13, 2012 photo, Lennar Homes sales manager Joy Broddle, left, talks with Kelly, center, and Bill Noorish while standing in the living area of the main house of a model Next Gen home, in Las Vegas. The Noorishes, who moved to Las Vegas recently from Pensacola, Fla. and have a multigenerational home under construction, will be joined soon in by their 32-year-old son and his wife. Builders across the country are revamping home designs to meet the needs of a growing number of Americans who are now living with extended family. The number of so-called multi-generational households where adults are living with their elderly parents or grown children has jumped since the Great Recession forced Americans to rethink living on their own. (AP Photo/Julie Jacobson)

一对夫妇正在为与儿子媳妇同居做准备选购新居(照片:美联社)

美国家庭文化的一个重要特色是成年子女大多与父母分居而住,但随着少数族裔的增加以及千禧一代观念的改变,两代、三代同住的美国家庭逐渐增多。最新调查显示,几代同住一个屋檐下的高达6400万人,占总人口的20%;其中三代同堂的有2840万人,占人口的8.7%。

皮尤中心(Pew Research Center)在人口普查局历年统计基础上所做的分析显示,25岁以上成年子女与上一代同住的人数,从1970年的2580万人一路攀升,1980年为2750万人、1990年为3540万人、2000年为4240万人、2009年为5150万人,到了2016年达到6400万人,几乎是1970年的2.5倍。

从不同族裔来看的话,亚裔几代同居的比例最高,占29%,这与亚裔传统文化是比较契合的,其后依次是拉美裔,占27%、非洲裔美国人占26%;白人所占比例最低,只有16%。由此可见,美国出现的几代人同居增多现象,与少数族裔人口快速增加有很大的关系。比如,根据皮尤中心的另外一项分析,从2000年至2015年,全美亚裔人数从1190万增加到2041万,增加了72%,是成长最快的少数族裔,而亚裔中几代同居的比例较高,这就从总体上影响了总人口中几代同居的比例。

在几代同居人口中,引人注目的是25岁至29岁年龄组的人与父母同居的比例最高,为33%,几乎每三个人中就有一个与父母同住。在这些人中,教育程度越高,与父母同住的比例越小,说明教育程度在几代同居中有一定的影响。

此外,65岁以上者与子女同住的人数与90年代相比也有增加,这也是孤身老人独居人数下降的原因之一。根据统计,1990年65岁以上孤身老人独居者占该年龄组的29%,到了2014年则下降到26%。

由于几代同居人数的增加,房地产开发商也看到了其中的商机,在新建房屋中,特别开发出为几代同居设计的房型,考虑到个人隐私及独立空间的需要,不但房间增多,而且有两个厨房以及3到4个厕所,这类房型很受买家的喜爱。

** ADVANCE FOR APRIL 22-24 ** Construction workers on the site of the new Treehouse at Easthampton Meadow, a multigenerational community under construction in Easthampton, Mass., continue their work during an open house  Monday, April 10, 2006. When finished, it will be a community where elders rent homes alongside younger families raising adopted and foster children. Homes are expected to be open for moving in by June.  (AP Photo/Nancy Palmieri)

** ADVANCE FOR APRIL 22-24 ** Construction workers on the site of the new Treehouse at Easthampton Meadow, a multigenerational community under construction in Easthampton, Mass., continue their work during an open house Monday, April 10, 2006. When finished, it will be a community where elders rent homes alongside younger families raising adopted and foster children. Homes are expected to be open for moving in by June. (AP Photo/Nancy Palmieri)

马萨诸塞州一处为几代同居设计建造的房子(照片:美联社)
来源:雾谷飞鸿

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